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Ruican Machinery >> Material

Non-Ferrous Metals

Material name

Composition

Properties

Applications

Aluminum / Aluminum alloys

Pure metal / Easily alloyed with small amounts of copper, manganese, silicone, magnesium, and other elements

Low density, good electrical conductivity (approx. 60% of copper), nonmagnetic, noncombustible, ductile, malleable, corrosion resistance; easily formed, machined, or cast

Window frames, aircraft parts, automotive parts, kitchenware

Brass

Alloy of copper and zinc, 65% to 35% is the common ratio

Reasonable hardness; casts, forms, and machines well; good electrical conductivity and acoustic properties

Parts for electrical fittings, valves, forgings, ornaments, musical instruments

Copper

Pure metal

Excellent ductility, thermal and electrical conductivity

Electrical wiring, tubing, kettles, bowls, pipes, printed circuit boards

Lead

Pure metal

Heaviest common metal, ductile, and malleable, good corrosion resistance

Pipes, batteries, roofing, protection against X-Rays

Magnesium / Magnesium Alloys

Pure metal / Used as an alloy element for aluminum, lead, zinc, and other nonferrous alloys; alloyed with aluminum to improve the mechanical, fabrication, and welding characteristics

Lightest metallic material (density of about 2/3 of that of aluminum), strong and tough, most machinable metal, good corrosion resistance, easily cast

Automobile, portable electronics, appliances, power tools, sporting goods parts, and aerospace equipment

Nickel / Nickel Alloys

Pure metal / Alloys very well with large amounts of other elements, chiefly chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten

Very good corrosion resistance (can be alloyed to extend beyond stainless steels), good high temperature and mechanical performance, fairly good conductor of heat and electricity

The major use of nickel is in the preparation of alloys or plating - frequently used as an undercoat in decorative chromium plating and to improve corrosion resistance; applications include electronic lead wires, battery components, heat exchangers in corrosive environments

Titanium / Titanium Alloys

Pure metal / Easily alloys with aluminum, nickel, chromium, and other elements

Low density, low coefficient of thermal expansion, high melting point, excellent corrosion resistance, nontoxic and generally biologically compatible with human tissues and bones, high strength, stiffness, good toughness

Aerospace structures and other high-performance applications, chemical and petrochemical applications, marine environments, and biomaterial applications

Zinc / Zinc Alloys

Pure metal/ Metal is employed to form numerous alloys with other metals. Alloys of primarily zinc with small amounts of copper, aluminum, and magnesium are useful in die-casting. The most widely used alloy of zinc is brass

Excellent corrosion resistance, light weight, reasonable conductor of electricity

Used principally for galvanizing iron (more than 50% of metallic zinc goes into galvanizing steel), numerous automotive applications because of its light weight

 

Ferrous Metals

Material name

Composition

Properties

Applications

Low Carbon Steels

Up to 0.30% Carbon

Good formability, good weld-ability, low cost

0.1% - 0.2% carbon: Chains, stampings, rivets, nails, wire, pipe, and where very soft, plastic steel is needed.

0.2% - 0.3% carbon: Machine and structural parts

Medium Carbon Steels

0.30% to 0.80% Carbon

A good balance of properties, fair formability

0.3% - 0.4% carbon: Lead screws, gears, worms, spindles, shafts, and machine parts.

0.4% - 0.5% carbon: Crankshafts, gears, axles, mandrels, tool shanks, and heat-treated machine parts

0.6% - 0.8% carbon: "Low carbon tool steel" and is used where shock strength is wanted. Drop hammer dies, set screws, screwdrivers, and arbors.

0.7% - 0.8% carbon: Tough and hard steel. Anvil faces, band saws, hammers, wrenches, and cable wire.

High Carbon Steels

0.80% to ~2.0% Carbon

Low toughness, formability, and weld-ability, high hardness and wear resistance, fair formability

0.8% - 0.9% carbon: Punches for metal, rock drills, shear blades, cold chisels, rivet sets, and many hand tools.

0.9% - 1.0% carbon: Used for hardness and high tensile strength, springs, cutting tools

1.0% - 1.2% carbon: Drills, taps, milling cutters, knives, cold cutting dies, wood working tools.

1.2% - 1.3% carbon: Files, reamers, knives, tools for cutting wood and brass.

1.3% - 1.4% carbon: Used where a keen cutting edge is necessary (razors, saws, etc.) and where wear resistance is important.

Stainless Steel

Stainless steel is a family of corrosion resistant steels. They contain at least 10.5% chromium, with or without other elements. The Chromium in the alloy forms a self-healing protective clear oxide layer. This oxide layer gives stainless steels their corrosion resistance.

Good corrosion resistance, appearance, and mechanical properties

 

Austenitic Steels: Contains chromium and nickel. The typical chromium content is in the range of 16% to 26%; nickel content is commonly less than 35%.

Good mechanical and corrosion resisting properties, high hardness and yield strength as well as excellent ductility and are usually non-magnetic

Kitchen sinks, architectural applications such as roofing, cladding, gutters, doors and windows; Food processing equipment; Heat exchangers; Ovens; Chemical tanks

Ferritic Steels: Magnetic with a high chromium and low nickel content usually alloyed with other elements such as aluminum or titanium.

Good ductility, weld-ability, and formability; reasonable thermal conductivity, and corrosion resistance with a good bright surface appearance

Automotive trim, catalytic converters, radiator caps, fuel lines, cooking utensils, architectural and domestic appliance trim applications

Martensitic Steels: Typically contains 11.0% to 17.0% chromium, no nickel, and 0.10% to 0.65% carbon levels. The high carbon enables the material to be hardened by heating to a high temperature, followed by rapid cooling (quenching).

Good combination of corrosion resistance and excellent mechanical properties, produced by heat treatment, to develop maximum hardness, strength, and resistance to abrasion and erosion.

Cutlery, scissors, surgical instruments, wear plates, garbage disposal shredder lugs, industrial knives, vanes for steam turbines, fasteners, shafts, and springs

 

 

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