Material

Non-Ferrous Metals

Material nameCompositionPropertiesApplications
Aluminum / Aluminum alloysPure metal / Easily alloyed with    small amounts of copper, manganese, silicone, magnesium, and other elementsLow density, good electrical conductivity (approx.   60% of copper),   nonmagnetic, noncombustible, ductile, malleable,   corrosion resistance;   easily formed, machined, or castWindow frames, aircraft parts,    automotive parts, kitchenware
BrassAlloy of copper and zinc, 65% to 35%    is the common ratioReasonable hardness; casts, forms,    and machines well; good electrical conductivity and acoustic propertiesParts for electrical fittings,    valves, forgings, ornaments, musical instruments
CopperPure metalExcellent ductility, thermal and    electrical conductivityElectrical wiring, tubing, kettles,    bowls, pipes, printed circuit boards
LeadPure metalHeaviest common metal, ductile, and    malleable, good corrosion resistancePipes, batteries, roofing, protection    against X-Rays
Magnesium / Magnesium AlloysPure metal / Used as an alloy element for aluminum,   lead, zinc, and   other nonferrous alloys; alloyed with aluminum to   improve the   mechanical, fabrication, and welding characteristicsLightest metallic material (density of about 2/3 of   that of   aluminum), strong and tough, most machinable metal, good   corrosion   resistance, easily castAutomobile, portable electronics,    appliances, power tools, sporting goods parts, and aerospace equipment
Nickel / Nickel AlloysPure metal / Alloys very well with    large amounts of other elements, chiefly chromium, molybdenum, and tungstenVery good corrosion resistance (can be alloyed to   extend beyond   stainless steels), good high temperature and mechanical   performance,   fairly good conductor of heat and electricityThe major use of nickel is in the preparation of   alloys or plating -   frequently used as an undercoat in decorative   chromium plating and to   improve corrosion resistance; applications   include electronic lead   wires, battery components, heat exchangers in   corrosive environments
Titanium / Titanium AlloysPure metal / Easily alloys with    aluminum, nickel, chromium, and other elementsLow density, low coefficient of thermal expansion,   high melting   point, excellent corrosion resistance, nontoxic and   generally   biologically compatible with human tissues and bones, high   strength,   stiffness, good toughnessAerospace structures and other high-performance   applications,   chemical and petrochemical applications, marine   environments, and   biomaterial applications
Zinc / Zinc AlloysPure metal/ Metal is employed to form numerous   alloys with other   metals. Alloys of primarily zinc with small amounts   of copper, aluminum,   and magnesium are useful in die-casting. The most   widely used alloy of   zinc is brassExcellent corrosion resistance, light    weight, reasonable conductor of electricityUsed principally for galvanizing iron (more than   50% of metallic zinc   goes into galvanizing steel), numerous automotive   applications because   of its light weight


Ferrous Metals

Material nameCompositionPropertiesApplications
Low Carbon SteelsUp to 0.30% CarbonGood formability, good weld-ability,    low cost0.1% - 0.2% carbon: Chains, stampings,    rivets, nails, wire, pipe, and where very soft, plastic steel is needed.
         
     0.2% - 0.3% carbon: Machine and structural parts
Medium Carbon Steels0.30% to 0.80% CarbonA good balance of properties, fair    formability0.3% - 0.4% carbon: Lead screws, gears,    worms, spindles, shafts, and machine parts.
         
       0.4% - 0.5% carbon: Crankshafts, gears, axles, mandrels, tool shanks, and    heat-treated machine parts
 
       0.6% - 0.8% carbon: "Low carbon tool    steel" and is used where shock strength is wanted. Drop hammer dies,    set screws, screwdrivers, and arbors.
 
     0.7% - 0.8% carbon: Tough and hard steel. Anvil faces, band saws, hammers,    wrenches, and cable wire.
High Carbon Steels0.80% to ~2.0% CarbonLow toughness, formability, and    weld-ability, high hardness and wear resistance, fair formability0.8% - 0.9% carbon: Punches for metal,    rock drills, shear blades, cold chisels, rivet sets, and many hand tools.
         
       0.9% - 1.0% carbon: Used for hardness and high tensile strength, springs,    cutting tools
 
       1.0% - 1.2% carbon: Drills, taps, milling cutters, knives, cold cutting dies,    wood working tools.
 
       1.2% - 1.3% carbon: Files, reamers, knives, tools for cutting wood and brass.
 
     1.3% - 1.4% carbon: Used where a keen cutting edge is   necessary (razors, saws, etc.) and where wear resistance is important.
Stainless SteelStainless steel is a family of corrosion resistant   steels. They   contain at least 10.5% chromium, with or without other   elements. The   Chromium in the alloy forms a self-healing protective   clear oxide layer.   This oxide layer gives stainless steels their   corrosion resistance.Good corrosion resistance,    appearance, and mechanical properties 
Austenitic Steels: Contains chromium and   nickel. The typical   chromium content is in the range of 16% to 26%;   nickel content is   commonly less than 35%.Good mechanical and corrosion resisting properties,   high hardness and   yield strength as well as excellent ductility and   are usually   non-magneticKitchen sinks, architectural applications such as   roofing, cladding,   gutters, doors and windows; Food processing   equipment; Heat exchangers;   Ovens; Chemical tanks
Ferritic Steels: Magnetic with a high chromium and low nickel content usually alloyed    with other elements such as aluminum or titanium.Good ductility, weld-ability, and formability;   reasonable thermal   conductivity, and corrosion resistance with a good   bright surface   appearanceAutomotive trim, catalytic converters, radiator   caps, fuel lines,   cooking utensils, architectural and domestic   appliance trim applications
Martensitic Steels: Typically contains   11.0% to 17.0%   chromium, no nickel, and 0.10% to 0.65% carbon levels.   The high carbon   enables the material to be hardened by heating to a   high temperature,   followed by rapid cooling (quenching).Good combination of corrosion resistance and   excellent mechanical   properties, produced by heat treatment, to   develop maximum hardness,   strength, and resistance to abrasion and   erosion.Cutlery, scissors, surgical instruments, wear   plates, garbage   disposal shredder lugs, industrial knives, vanes for   steam turbines,   fasteners, shafts, and springs