|Low Carbon Steels||Up to 0.30% Carbon||Good formability, good weld-ability, low cost||0.1% - 0.2% carbon: Chains, stampings, rivets, nails, wire, pipe, and where very soft, plastic steel is needed. |
0.2% - 0.3% carbon: Machine and structural parts
|Medium Carbon Steels||0.30% to 0.80% Carbon||A good balance of properties, fair formability||0.3% - 0.4% carbon: Lead screws, gears, worms, spindles, shafts, and machine parts. |
0.4% - 0.5% carbon: Crankshafts, gears, axles, mandrels, tool shanks, and heat-treated machine parts
0.6% - 0.8% carbon: "Low carbon tool steel" and is used where shock strength is wanted. Drop hammer dies, set screws, screwdrivers, and arbors.
0.7% - 0.8% carbon: Tough and hard steel. Anvil faces, band saws, hammers, wrenches, and cable wire.
|High Carbon Steels||0.80% to ~2.0% Carbon||Low toughness, formability, and weld-ability, high hardness and wear resistance, fair formability||0.8% - 0.9% carbon: Punches for metal, rock drills, shear blades, cold chisels, rivet sets, and many hand tools. |
0.9% - 1.0% carbon: Used for hardness and high tensile strength, springs, cutting tools
1.0% - 1.2% carbon: Drills, taps, milling cutters, knives, cold cutting dies, wood working tools.
1.2% - 1.3% carbon: Files, reamers, knives, tools for cutting wood and brass.
1.3% - 1.4% carbon: Used where a keen cutting edge is necessary (razors, saws, etc.) and where wear resistance is important.
|Stainless Steel||Stainless steel is a family of corrosion resistant steels. They contain at least 10.5% chromium, with or without other elements. The Chromium in the alloy forms a self-healing protective clear oxide layer. This oxide layer gives stainless steels their corrosion resistance.||Good corrosion resistance, appearance, and mechanical properties|
|Austenitic Steels: Contains chromium and nickel. The typical chromium content is in the range of 16% to 26%; nickel content is commonly less than 35%.||Good mechanical and corrosion resisting properties, high hardness and yield strength as well as excellent ductility and are usually non-magnetic||Kitchen sinks, architectural applications such as roofing, cladding, gutters, doors and windows; Food processing equipment; Heat exchangers; Ovens; Chemical tanks|
|Ferritic Steels: Magnetic with a high chromium and low nickel content usually alloyed with other elements such as aluminum or titanium.||Good ductility, weld-ability, and formability; reasonable thermal conductivity, and corrosion resistance with a good bright surface appearance||Automotive trim, catalytic converters, radiator caps, fuel lines, cooking utensils, architectural and domestic appliance trim applications|
|Martensitic Steels: Typically contains 11.0% to 17.0% chromium, no nickel, and 0.10% to 0.65% carbon levels. The high carbon enables the material to be hardened by heating to a high temperature, followed by rapid cooling (quenching).||Good combination of corrosion resistance and excellent mechanical properties, produced by heat treatment, to develop maximum hardness, strength, and resistance to abrasion and erosion.||Cutlery, scissors, surgical instruments, wear plates, garbage disposal shredder lugs, industrial knives, vanes for steam turbines, fasteners, shafts, and springs|